Friday, May 7, 2010



All the experiement (field work and lab work) will be conducted from june until nov 2010.

Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Chlorophyll fluorescence

Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is a tool to investigate the ecophysiological and physiological of plants.

The principle involved in chlorophyll fluorescence is totally straightforward. Light will undergo to the antenna of plant and there are three processes involved which are photochemistry, dissipation of heat and emisson of fluorescence. these three process are competing. any increasing one of the process leads to the decreasing of the yield of the other two. Thus, by identify yield of chlorophyll fluorescence, information about changes in the efficiency of photochemistry and heat dissipation can be gained.

The importance of collagen for human bodies..

Collagen is a type of protein. Fibrous in nature, it connects and supports other bodily tissues, such as skin, bone, tendons, muscles, and cartilage. It also supports the internal organs and is even present in teeth. There are more than 25 types of collagen that naturally occur in the body.

Collagen is one of the most plentiful proteins present in the bodies of mammals, including humans. In fact, it makes up about 25 percent of the total amount of proteins in the body. Some people refer to collagen as the glue that holds the body together. Without it, the body would, quite literally, fall apart.

Possessing great tensile strength, collagen functions in a manner that is very different from many other types of proteins. For example, it can be found both inside and outside of cells. Collagen fibers are important in contributing to the external structure of cells. However, they are present on the inside of some cells as well.

Collagen works hand-in-hand with elastin in supporting the body's tissues. Basically, it gives body tissues form and provides firmness and strength; elastin gives the same body tissues much need flexibility. This combination of collagen and elastin is very important in many parts of the body, including, but not limited to, the lungs, bones, and tendons. Even the blood vessels rely on both collagen and elastin.

Often, collagen is discussed in relation to the skin. It works with keratin to provide the skin with strength, flexibility, and resilience. As people age, however, collagen degradation occurs, leading to wrinkles. As such, it is an important substance for those looking for ways to fight the visible effects of aging on the skin. Some skincare professionals actually advise people on ways to stimulate the production of collagen in skins cells.

In addition to being so important in the body, collagen also has many medical uses. It is used in some cosmetic surgery procedures and is sold as a supplement created for joint mobility. It is even used in treating and managing serious burns. For this purpose, it is used in creating man-made skin substitutes.

Since collagens are so important within the body, it stands to reason that collagen deficiencies can be problematic. In fact, there are some genetic diseases that are associated with collagen deficiencies. For example, osteogenesis imperfecta, commonly referred to as brittle bone disease, results from a significantly decreased level of collagen. It can also result from the presence of collagen that is of lower quality than normal.

Which Foods Contain the Most Collagen?
Deriving its name from the Greek word kolla, collagen is indeed a vital element that helps to keep the body functioning. Fortunately, there are a number of foods that help to support the creation of collagen within our bodies. Here are a few examples of the many different foods that provide the building blocks for the collagen production.

Soy products such as soymilk and cheese contain an element known as genistein. The presence of genistein gives soy products their collagen production qualities, as swell as helping to block enzymes that tend to break down and age the skin. Just about any soy product contains enough genistein to be helpful, including soy products that have been developed as substitutes for meat products.

Dark green vegetables are also excellent examples of foods containing collagen producing agents. Rich in Vitamin C, regular consumption of kale, spinach, collards, and asparagus helps to strengthen the body's ability to manufacture collagen and to utilize the protein effectively.

Red fruits and vegetables also are excellent sources to up the collagen content of foods in the diet.

The presence of lycopenes in these types of foods helps to act as antioxidants, which in turn increases collagen production. Try adding rep peppers, beets, and fresh or stewed tomatoes to the diet. In like manner, darker berries, such as blueberries and blackberries also help to boost the antioxidant level in the body and stimulate the production of collagen.

The presence of omega acids also helps to create an ideal environment for collagen production. Fish such as salmon and tuna are excellent sources of omega fatty acids. Nuts such as cashews, pecans, almonds and Brazil nuts contain healthy amounts as well. For a snack that promotes healthy production of collagen, try making an avocado dip. Avocados contain the same omega fatty acids as fish, and digest just as easily.

Foods that are rich in sulfur content are also important to collagen production. Among these are green and black olives, fresh cucumbers, and fresh stalks of celery. Working in conjunction with the sulfur, vegetables that are rich in Vitamin A also aid in keeping collagen levels high. Try adding raw carrots, fresh cantaloupe and baked sweet potatoes to the diet for an extra boost.

One of the key points to keep in mind is that it is possible to provide everything your body needs to produce collagen by eating a balanced diet. By including some of the foods mentioned here, you will soon begin to see a difference in the quality of your skin tone, as well as have an improved sense of overall health. (any source)

Thursday, January 28, 2010

my chillie plants..(picture of previous experiment)

This is picture of my previous experiment about effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal on the growth of chilli plants..But the results are not significant as i expected..
This is because..i didnt put any stress so that it will not stimulate AM symbiosis to the plants..

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

preparation of plant material

This picture show seedlings of Hot pepper 2 weeks after sowing..

today..i sown chilli seeds Kulai..3 this 4 or 5 weeks..before transplanting..proceed to the preparation of growing medium..but i still not decide the number of experimental units..i ve to discuss with my supervisor first..

Friday, January 8, 2010

antioxidant analysis

yesterday..i had finished my CAT i m going to proceed for APX determination...nextweek followed by GR and POX...

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

pest and disease of chili plants

this symptom showed that chilli plants had been attacked by aphid...